The National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB) was established in 1989 under the supervision of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. It was established with dual purposes of promoting research in avant-garde areas of biological sciences and biotechnology as well as providing advanced training and educational programs for scientists and students from other universities and academic institutions. The activities of NIGEB are being conducted by three sub-institutes heading nine departments. Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology (IAB) runs the departments of Plant Bioproducts, Plant Molecular Biotechnology, and Animal Biotechnology, the Institute of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology (IIEB) manages the departments of Bioprocess Engineering, Systems Biotechnology as well as Energy and Environmental Biotechnology. And the Institute of Medical Biotechnology (IMB) conducts the departments of Medical Genetics, Stem Cell, and Molecular Medicine.